|Artillery Officer's Hat Insignia||Artillery Officer's Cap Insignia|
Artillery officers wore a crossed cannon insignia on their headgear. These were generally embroidered but in some cases were stamped brass with a false embroidered appearance. These were generally embroidered on an oval of black velvet with a border of Jaceron wire. The embroidered crossed cannons were hand made and the originals come in countless variations. Enlisted men wore a larger stamped brass crossed cannon insignia.
The crossed cannon insignia was first used by U.S. Army officers on shakos or caps in 1832. It has remained in use with various modifications since as a branch insignia for artillery. Branch insignia were replaced on officers' caps by an eagle (Great Seal of the United States) beginning in 1895. Since 1917 branch insignia were no longer used as insignia on headgear by any category of troops, but continued in use as collar or lapel insignia.
During the Civil War crossed cannon were worn on the front of the Jeff Davis (Hardee) Hat and on the front or top of the kepi (forage cap). There is a great deal of individual variation in the appearance of these. In some cases the battery or regimental number was worn incorporated into the device. A small circle at the intersection of the cannon tubes allowed for this. Crossed cannons were used by both light and heavy artillery units as an insignia.